Moravian History

Moravian History – General

Atwood, Craig D., and Peter Vogt, editors.  The Distinctiveness of Moravian Culture: Essays and Documents in Moravian History in Honor of Vernon H. Nelson.  Nazareth: Moravian Historical Society, 2003.

Dreydoppel, Otto Jr.  Here We Stand:  The Moravian Church Among the Churches of the Reformation.  Bethlehem:  Provincial Women’s Board, 1999.

Sawyer, Edwin A.  These Fifteeen:  Pioneers of the Moravian Church.  Bethlehem and Winston-Salem:  Comenius Press, 1963.  Capsule biographies.

Schattschneider, Allen.   Through 500 Years and Beyond:  A Popular History of the Moravian Church.  Third edition, revised by Albert H. Frank.  Bethlehem:  Moravian Church in America, 2008.

Weinlick, John R., and Albert H. Frank.  The Moravian Church Through the Ages.  Third edition.  Bethlehem and Winston-Salem:  The Moravian Church in America, 2008.  A popular history.

Van Buijtenen, Mari, P., Cornelius Dekker, and Huib Leewenberg, editors.  Unitas Fratrum:  Herrnhuter Studien/Moravian Studies.  Utrecht:  Rijksarchief in Utrecht, 1975.  Essays treating Moravian life and history in different geographical areas, along with articles on Moravian theology, Moravian music, Moravian architecture, etc.  Roughly half of the pieces are in English and the other half in German.

Moravian History – The Ancient Unity

Crews, C. Daniel.  Faith, Love, Hope:  A History of the Unitas Fratrum.  Winston-Salem:  Moravian Archives, 2008.  The most recent scholarly treatment of the ancient Moravian Church.

De Schweinitz, Edmund A.  The History of the Church Known as the Unitas Fratrum.  Second edition.  Bethlehem:  Moravian Publication Concern, 1901.  De Schweinitz's work has been superceded by more recent historiography, but this volume is still important for its breadth and depth.

Fousek, Marianka.  “Spiritual Direction and Discipline:  A Key to the Flowering and Decay of the 16th-Century Unitas Fratrum.”  Archive for Reformation History 62 (1971):  207-224.

Fudge, Thomas A.  The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418-1437.  Brookfield, Vermont:  Ashgate Publishing, 2002.

--------.  The Magnificent Ride:  The First Reformation in Hussite Bohemia.  Brookfield, Vermont:  Ashgate Publishing, 1998.

Müller, Joseph Theodor.  Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder. 3 volumes.  Herrnhut:  Verlag der Missionsbuchhandlung, 1922-1931.  “History of the Bohemian Brethren.”  Müller’s work was the first modern history of the ancient Unitas Fratrum to be based on Czech sources.

Sawyer, Edwin A.  “The Waldensian Influence on the Moravian Church.”  Transactions of the Moravi­an Historical Society 25 (1988): 47-61.

Ìí…an, Rudolf.  The History of the Unity of Brethren:  A Protestant Hussite Church in Bohemia and Moravia.  C. Daniel Crews, translator.  Bethlehem and Winston-Salem:  The Moravian Church in America, 1992. 

Schattschneider, David A.  “Three Examples of Comenius' Legacy in America.”  Communio Viatorum 34 (1992).

--------.  “The Unitas Fratrum and the ‘Renewed’ Church:  Continuity and Change.”  Czechoslovak and Central European Journal 9 (1990):  27-34.

Moravian History —The Renewed Moravian Church

Abel, Carolyn, and Patricia McAndrews, editors.  Bethlehem Boy: The Civil War Letters & Diary of James A. Peifer.  Bethlehem:  Moon Trail Books, 2007.  The experience of Peifer (1838-1877) illustrates the transition of the Moravian Church in the 19th century from pacifist sect to American denomination.
Atwood, Craig D.  Community of the Cross: Moravian Piety in Colonial Bethlehem.  University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.

--------.  “The Mother of God’s People: The Adoration of the Holy Spirit in the Eighteenth-Century Brüdergemeine.”  Church History 68 (December 1999): 886-909.

Brown, Dale.  Understanding Pietism.  Revised edition.  Nippanee, Indiana: Evangel Publishing House, 1996. Treats Moravianism in the context of the 18th-century Continental Pietist movement.

Crews, C, Daniel, and Lisa D. Bailey, editors.  Records of the Moravians in North Carolina Vol. 12: 1856-1866.  Raleigh:  North Carolina State Department of Cultural Resources, 2000.

Crews, C. Daniel, and Richard W. Starbuck.  With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church, Southern Province.  Winston-Salem: Moravian Church, Southern Province, 2002.

Dreyer, Frederick.  The Genesis of Methodism.  Bethlehem:  Lehigh University Press, 1999.  Dreyer argues that, although most histories of Methodists origins emphasize the Anglican context of John Wesley’s movement, it is much more important to understand it in relationship to Moravianism.

Erbe, Hellmut.  Bethlehem, Pennsylvanien:  Eine Kommunistische Herrnhuter Kolonie des 18. Jahrhunderts.  Stuttgart:  Ausland und Heimat Verlagsaktiengesellschaft, 1929.  “Bethlehem, Pennsylvania:  A Communistic Herrnhut Colony of the the 18th Century”; available at Reeves Library of Moravian Theological Seminary in a typescript translation (1959).

Faull, Katherine.  Moravian Women's Memoirs: Their Related Lives, 1750-1820 .  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1997.  The memoir (Lebenslauf; spiritual autobiography) was an important part of Moravian devotion during the communal period.  Faull uses the word related in two senses: “told” and “connected.”

Fogleman, Aaron Spencer.  Jesus is Female:  Moravians and Radical Religion in Early America.  Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

--------.  “Shadow Boxing in Georgia: The Beginnings of the Moravian-Lutheran Conflict in British North America.”  The Georgia Historical Quarterly.  83 (Winter 1999): 629-659.                      

Fries, Adelaide L., et al, editors.  Records of the Moravians in North Carolina.  11 volumes.  Raleigh:  North Carolina State Department of Archives and History, 1922-1969.  Excerpts and translations of materials from the Archives of the Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, covering the years 1752-1879.  A twelfth volume, edited by Daniel Crews and Lisa Bailey, appeared in 2000.

Gilbert, Daniel R., editor.  Freddy’s War: The Civil War Letters of John Frederick Frueauff.  Bethlehem: Moravian College, 2006.  Frueauff was a Bethlehem Moravian who served as an officer in the Union Army.

Gillespie, Michele, and Robert Beachy, editors.  Pious Pursuits:  German Moravians in the Atlantic World.  New York:  Berghan Books, 2007.  Papers from a symposium held at Wake Forest University in 2002.

Gollin, Gillian Lindt.  Moravians in Two Worlds:  A Study of Changing Communities.  New York and London:  Columbia University Press, 1967.  A comparative historical and sociological study of Herrnhut, Saxony, and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Hagen, Francis Florentine.  Old Landmarks Or, Faith and Practice of the Moravian Church, at the Time of Its Revival and Restoration, and Twenty Years After.  Bethlehem, Pennsylvania:  Hagen, 1886.  Excerpts from important primary documents in the early history of the Renewed Moravian Church.

Hahn, Hans-Christoph, and Hellmut Reichel.  Zinzendorf und die Herrnhuter Brüder: Quellen zur Geschichte der Brüder-Unität von 1722 bis 1760.  “Zinzendorf and the Moravian Brethren: Sources for the History of the Moravian Church, 1722-1760.”

 Hamilton, J. Taylor, and Kenneth G. Hamilton.  History of the Moravian Church:  The Renewed Unitas Fratrum, 1722-1957.  Bethlehem and Winston-Salem:  Interprovincial Board of Christian Education, Moravian Church in America, 1967.  The standard history of the modern Moravian Church.

Hamilton, Kenneth G.  John Ettwein and the Moravian Church During the Revolutionary Period.  Bethlehem:  Times Publishing Company, 1940.

Hamilton, Kenneth G., editor and translator.  The Bethlehem Diary, Volume 1:  1742-1744.  Bethlehem:  Archives of the Moravian Church, 1971.  An annotated translation of part of the communal diary of the early Moravians in North America.

Hamilton, Kenneth G., and Lothar Madeheim, translators.  The Bethlehem Diary, Volume 2: 1744-1745.  Vernon H. Nelson, Otto Dreydoppel, Jr., and Doris Rohland Yob, editors.  Bethlehem: Moravian Archives, 2001.

Krüger, Bernhard.  The Pear Tree Blossoms: the History of the Moravian Church in South Africa, 1737-1869.  Genadendal, South Africa, 1966.

Jannasch, Hans-Windekilde.  Herrnhuter Miniaturen.  Third expanded edition.  Hamburg: Friedrich Wittig Verlag, 1976.  “Herrnhut Miniatures.”  Sketches from Moravian history.

Levering, J. Mortimer.  A History of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1892.  Bethlehem:  Times Publishing Company, 1903.  In extensive and copious footnotes, Levering translates many diary entries and other German-language source materials that otherwise are available only in manuscripts held in the Moravian Archives.

Mason.  J, C. S.  The Moravian Church and the Missionary Awakening in England, 1760-1800.  Rochester, New York:  Boydell & Brewer Inc., 2001.

Meyer, Dietrich.  Zinzendorf und die Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine, 1700-2000.  Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2000.  “Zinzendorf and the Moravian Church, 1700-2000.”

Meyers, Richmond E.  “The Moravian Church and the Civil War.”  Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society 20 (1965): 226-248.

Murtaugh, William.  Moravian Architecture and Town Planning:  Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Other Eighteenth-Century American Settlements.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Nielsen, W. Sigurd.  The Twin Blossom of the Pear Tree Bears Fruit: the History of the Moravian Church, Eastern Province, in South Africa.  Port Shepstone, South Africa, 1999.
Oldendorp, C. G. A.  History of the Mission of the Evangelical Brethren on the Caribbean Islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John (1770).  Arnold Highfield and Vladimir Barac, translators and editors.  Ann Arbor, Michigan: Karoma Publishers, 1987.

Peucker, Paul.  “The Songs of the Sifting:  Understanding the Role of Bridal Mysticism in Moravian Piety during the Late 1740s.”  Journal of Moravian History 3 (Fall 2007):  51-87.

Podmore, Colin.  The Moravian Church in England, 1728-1760.  Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1998.

--------.  “Zinzendorf and the English Moravians.”  Journal of Moravian History 3 (Fall 2007):  31-50.

Reichel, Levin Theodor.  The Early History of the Church of the United Brethren , (Unitas Fratrum) Commonly Called Moravians, in North America, A.D. 1734-1748.  Nazareth, Pennslvania:  Moravian Historical Society, 1888.
Richter, Hedwig.  “De-Nazification, Socialism and Solidarity:  Re-Establishing International Relations in the Moravian Church after 1945.”  Journal of Moravian History 3 (Fall 2007):  7-29.

Sawyer, Edwin A.  The Religious Experience of the Colonial American Moravians.  Nazareth:  Moravian Historical Society, 1961.  An “answer” to Sessler (see below).

Schattschneider, David A.  “Moravianism as an American Denomination.”  Methodist History 24 (1986):  157-170.

--------.  “Moravians in the Mid-West, 1850-1900:  An Appreciation.”  Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society 23 (1984):  47-69.

--------.  “William Carey, Modern Missions, and the Moravian Influence.”  International Bulletin of Missionary Research 22 (1998):  8-12.

Sensbach, Jon.  Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005.

--------.  A Separate Canaan:  The Making of An Afro-American World in North Carolina, 1763-1840.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina:  University of North Carolina Press, 1998.  Sensbach describes the situation of African Americans in the Moravian community of Salem, North Carolina.

Sessler, John Jacob.  Communal Pietism Among Early American Moravians.  New York:  H. Holt and Company, 1933.  Sessler provides translations of much 18th-century Moravian literature, especially the poetry and hymnody of the so-called “Sifting Time,” which he then uses to portray the Moravians as theologically unsound and socially eccentric.

Smaby, Beverly Prior.  The Transformation of Moravian Bethlehem:  From Communal Mission to Family Economy.  Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.  A historical and demographic study.

Sommer, Elisabeth.  “A Different Kind   of Freedom?  Order and Discipline Among the Moravian Brethren in Germany and Salem, North Carolina, 1771-1801.”  Church History 63  (June 1994): 221-234.

--------.  Serving Two Masters: Moravian Brethren in Germany and North Carolina, 1727-1801.  Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2000.

Stead, Geoffrey, and Margaret Stead.  The Exotic Plant:  A History of the Moravian Church in Great Britain, 1742-2000.  Peterborough, UK:  Epworth Press, 2003.

Stocker, Harry E.  A Home Mission History of the Moravian Church in the United States and Canada (Northern Province).  New York:  The Special Publications Committee of the Moravian Church, 1924.  The only comprehensive work on the expansion of the Moravian Church in North America.  Stocker based his history on primary sources, but unfortunately he did not employ footnotes or other scholarly apparatus.

Stoeffler, F. Ernest.  Continental Pietism and Early American Christianity.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1976.

--------.  German Pietism During the Eighteenth Century.  Leiden:  Brill, 1973.

Surratt, Jerry L.  Gottlieb Schober of Salem: Discipleship and Ecumenical Vision in an Early Moravian Town.  Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1983.

Thorp, Daniel B.  The Moravian Community in Colonial North Carolina:  Pluralism on the Southern Frontier.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989.  A historical study of the interaction between the Moravians and their neighbors in colonial North Carolina.

Towlson, Clifford.  Moravian and Methodist:  Relationships and Influences in the Eighteenth Century.  London:  Epworth Press, 1957.

Vogt, Peter.  “‘Everywhere at Home’:  The Eighteenth-Century Moraivan Movement as a Transatlantic Religious Community.”  Journal of Moravian History 1 (Fall 2006):  7-29.   

Ward, W. Reginald.  Faith and Faction.  London: Epworth Press, 1993.  Collected essays on 18th-century Protestantism, including several which address Moravian topics.

--------.  The Protestant Evangelical Awakening.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1992.  Includes material on Zinzendorf and the 18th-century Moravians.

Weinlick, John R.  “Colonial Moravians: Their Status Among the Churches.”  Pennsylvania History 26 (July 1959): 213-225.

Yates, W.  Ross.  Bethlehem of Pennsylvania:  The Golden Years.  Bethlehem:  Bicentennial Book Committee, 1976